Root canal

Previously, a tooth whose root had become infected had to be extracted. However, in 95% of cases today, this is no longer the case. Root canal therapy treats the root (also called the pulp) of the tooth. Today, in new dental technology, wisdom tooth denervation has become a relatively painless technique that allows you to preserve your teeth instead of losing them. Widespread tooth decay, trauma, tooth fracture, and gum disease can cause tooth loss and can cause symptoms, such as pain when chewing and pressing on the tooth, tooth sensitivity to cold and heat that lasts longer than usual. Whatever the cause of the nerve canal problem, your teeth can be saved by using root canal therapy.

What is root canal therapy?

In Greek, “endo” means inside and “dent” means tooth, so endodontic treatment means healing the space inside the tooth. Knowing the anatomy of the tooth will help to understand the root canal treatment. Inside the tooth, beneath the white enamel and hard layer called dentin, is the soft tissue of the tooth root. The root of the tooth contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues, and as the tooth grows, it forms the hard tissue that surrounds the tooth. Root tissue extends from the crown of the tooth to the tip of the tooth root, where it attaches to the surrounding tissue of the tooth root. Root tissue plays an important role in tooth growth. However, after full growth, the tooth can remain without roots, because the tooth can feed on the surrounding tissue.

How does root canal therapy protect teeth?

Root canal therapy removes inflamed and infected tissue from the root and thoroughly cleans and shapes the root canal, then fills and closes the empty space in the root canal. You can then see your dentist again for a veneer or other restorative treatment to fully restore tooth function. After restoration, the denervated tooth acts like any of your other teeth.

Why may a tooth need root canal therapy?

Root canal therapy becomes necessary when the root (soft tissue inside the root canal) becomes inflamed or infected. Inflammation and infection of root tissue can occur for a variety of reasons:

Tooth Decay

Perform repeated treatments on the teeth

There are cracks or fractures in the teeth

Any blow to the tooth, even if it does not cause a fracture or apparent crack on the tooth, can lead to damage to the root tissue of the tooth. If inflammation or infection of the root tissue is not treated, it can lead to toothache and eventually tooth abscess.

Signs that the tooth needs root canal therapy:

Symptoms to look out for are:


Prolonged sensitivity to heat and cold

Sensitivity to touch and chewing

Jaundice and tooth staining


Sensitivity and fluid leakage from abscess sacs and adjacent bone and gum tissue

How to perform root canal surgery

Root canal therapy is often performed in one or two visits to the dentist and includes the following steps:

The root canal specialist injects local anesthesia after examining the tooth and examining the photo taken of the tooth. After the tooth is anesthetized, he places a small protective layer of rubber to keep the tooth dry in that area to separate the tooth from adjacent teeth and prevent saliva from entering it.

The orthodontist then pierces the crown and uses very fine tools to remove the root tissue from the root canal and root canals and to shave the root canal and fill it with dental fillings.

After the root canal is cleaned and shaved, the root canal specialist fills the space inside the root with environmentally friendly fillers (usually a rubber-shaped material called rubber). In order to completely seal the root space, this filler is placed inside the root space with adhesives. In some cases, a temporary filler is placed on the root canal to close the entrance. Before the tooth is restored, this temporary filling material is removed by the dentist.

After the final referral to a root canal specialist, you should see a dentist to place a veneer or other restorative material on the tooth and protect and restore it to its full function.

If the tooth does not have the proper structure to hold the restorative material inside, the dentist or endodontist may place an abutment inside the tooth. You can get more details about different methods of repairing your teeth by asking your dentist.

Will you feel any pain during the denervation treatment?

Many root canal procedures are performed to relieve toothache caused by inflammation or infection of the root. With new techniques and local anesthesia applied, most patients do not feel any pain during endodontic treatment.

Your teeth may be sensitive for the first few days after treatment, especially if you had a toothache before the neurosurgery treatment. This allergy can be treated with over-the-counter medications or prescribed by your dentist. Follow the instructions of your root canal specialist completely. For some time after the denervation, your tooth will look slightly different from other teeth. However, if you feel severe pain or pressure that lasts for more than a few days, be sure to contact your endodontist.

When the tooth begins to open the gums to find a way to fully grow, it is normal to experience some discomfort as well as swelling in the gums.

When wisdom teeth come out through damage to the gums, they can cause complications that lead to more swelling, including:

A welt that traps food and bacteria, in which case the area becomes inflamed.

Swollen gums can also be caused by a vitamin deficiency or gingivitis, but do not normally cause swelling or damage to your teeth.

How can we reduce the swelling of the gums in wisdom teeth?

Wisdom teeth are one of the causes of pain in the jaw area.

If your teeth are swollen, food is trapped or food is sticking to your teeth, rinse your mouth thoroughly. The dentist recommends the use of salt water or the use of antibacterial mouthwashes in these cases. Swelling is reduced when these foods are cleared from your mouth and teeth.

You can not prevent the full growth of your wisdom teeth.

Also, avoid problems such as occlusion, which can lead to improper tooth extraction.

The best way to prevent these problems is to see your dentist every six months.

Your doctor can prescribe strategies to prevent these problems by examining your tooth growth. It is not uncommon for the jaw to feel pain when a wisdom tooth comes in. Swelling of the gums in the wisdom teeth can be due to reasons such as food and bacteria being trapped in the gums. When you feel pain or swelling in your gums, you can use ice packs or antibacterial drugs and painkillers to relieve the pain as well as prevent the growth of more bacteria.

Cause of swelling of the gums around the teeth:

Possible causes of swollen gums around a tooth include:

Poor dental hygiene

Occasionally, food debris can be trapped between the teeth and the gum line. Flossing and brushing can help remove these substances. If you do not remove these substances, the bacteria present in the mouth will grow in this area and cause abscesses or swelling around the teeth.

Periodontal diseases

Infection and inflammation of the gums may cause periodontal disease.

About 46% of people 30 years of age or older in the United States have symptoms of gum disease. The medical term for this disease is periodontal. Periodontal disease occurs due to infection and inflammation of the gums around the teeth. This infection occurs when plaque builds up between a person’s teeth.

Medical research shows that the primary color of a healthy tooth is not as white as we think, and most white teeth are not synonymous with being healthier.

The strongest teeth are the healthiest and most natural, but most of these teeth are not white. Of course, we cannot say that these teeth are not completely white, but it means that their color is not white paper, but a little darker. But what is the reason for this?

The enamel itself is bluish white, but it is also somewhat clear, so the yellow dentin underneath makes the tooth appear light yellow or gray.

Of course, this type of tooth whitening is completely different from tooth staining due to the use of external items, and undoubtedly, teeth that have been stained due to side effects are less healthy than normal teeth. All dentists and specialists definitely confirm that teeth that have changed color due to not using toothpaste such as toothbrush, floss and mouthwash, are at a much lower level of health than ordinary teeth.

The two main causes of tooth discoloration due to external elements can be mentioned as excessive tobacco consumption or rare metabolic disorders. This disorder can be partially corrected with a combination of bleaches and polishing the tooth’s laminar layer, but each of these solutions will weaken the teeth if used consistently.

Solutions to prevent tooth discoloration:

Prevention is always better than cure, which is why we offer you simple ways to protect your teeth from discoloration.

Avoid excessive consumption of sweets, as sweets often cause cavities and discoloration of the teeth.

If you smoke or smoke, try to use special fluorides.

Hydrogen peroxide is one of the best toothpastes and you can put this substance on your toothbrush and increase the whitening effect of teeth. Sodium perborate is also present in this substance but it is very different, although the consumption of sodium Perborate should only be taken under a doctor’s supervision.

If you do not use the toothbrush properly, the teeth will change color and in such a case, you must have two toothbrushes and you can use one of them in a dry state to clean the mouth and the other with toothpaste.

It is very important to observe proper oral hygiene in this regard, and this solution is usually not recommended for aesthetics, and in fact, lack of proper oral hygiene can have a negative impact on overall dental health.

Teeth change color over time due to various factors and spots appear on their surface. But discoloration and stains on the surface of the tooth are different, and this makes their treatment methods also different.

In general, in terms of depth of discoloration, three types of tooth stains are superficial stains, deep stains and aging stains.

Surface stains: These stains are created in the outer layer of the tooth, which is called enamel. Stains and discoloration from foods such as coffee and tea, soft drinks and other substances are of this type. Cigarettes can also cause surface stains.

Deep spots: These spots are created in the internal structure of the tooth (dentin layer). Ivory has a darker color. In the following cases, deep spots appear in the dentin layer:

They are exposed to a lot of fluoride during childhood when their teeth are growing

Your mother took the antibiotic tetracycline during pregnancy, especially in the second half of pregnancy

In childhood, a growing permanent tooth is damaged by injuries such as a fall or accident

Permanent tooth is injured and has internal bleeding that has changed its color (red, brown or black tooth)

You may be born with a rare medical condition called dentin genesis imperfecta, which causes teeth to turn gray or purple.

Aging spots: This color change includes any type of surface and depth. The dentin layer turns yellow with age. On the other hand, the enamel that covers the surface of the tooth becomes thinner over time and shows more dentin color. On the other hand, eating high-pigmented foods and smoking also make teeth yellower. Eventually, injuries such as lip filling and cracking can cause tooth discoloration.

As mentioned, the factors that cause discoloration and stains on teeth are not always limited to colored drinks and foods. Some people experience tooth discoloration as a result of taking drugs, fluoride, cigarettes and other tobacco products, aging or injuries. The method of teeth whitening varies depending on the severity of the tooth discoloration and its type. That’s why it’s important to identify the cause of the discoloration.

If one of your teeth is darker than the other, it is often due to dental injuries or certain medications. If the cause of a particular tooth is dull, injury and trauma can occur in two cases. Iron in the blood may have entered the dentin structure of the tooth and saturated it, resulting in deep spots inside the tooth. Another condition is that the injury has caused the tooth structure to become out of shape, resulting in more spots accumulating in some areas of the tooth.

Sometimes when you look closely at your teeth in the mirror you will notice white spots on the surface of the tooth and sometimes you may see only a white spot on the surface of the tooth. White spots on the surface of the teeth are usually the first signs of tooth decay and possibly perforation in the future. Do not worry because it is not too late for treatment. You should have regular check-ups every six months and scaling in a timely manner to prevent tooth decay. White spots on the surface of the tooth indicate that the process of decalcification (meaning the removal of calcium from the tooth structure) is taking place. Calcium depletion usually occurs due to poor diet and lack of saliva flow in the mouth and is irreversible. However, this condition can be managed by drinking plenty of water and many times, as well as using fluoride-containing products to mineralize teeth.

Discoloration after teeth whitening

In fact, this problem does not mean discoloration of the teeth. When you go to the dentist to whiten your teeth, you should know that dental restorations such as veneers or laminates, or veneers, fillings and implants do not whiten with this treatment and do not change color. The surface of dental restorations is completely smooth, like glass, and unlike teeth, there is no porosity. Due to the smooth and polished surface of the restoration and the absence of porosity, the pigment materials cannot enter its structure and change its color. When you want to whiten your teeth, dental restorations do not have pigment and stains that become whiter when you lose them. Therefore, after bleaching, your natural teeth turn white, but the restorations do not change color, which is why there is a color difference between natural teeth and dental restorations. As a result, you think the restorations have changed color. That is why it is always recommended that if you want to whiten your teeth, do this before tooth restoration so that the restoration color is chosen according to your whitened teeth.

Sometimes there is a bitter taste in the mouth that can not be eliminated by eating sweets. Bitterness in the mouth depends on various factors, and with some measures, this taste change can be eliminated. A bitter or bad taste in the mouth can be a natural reaction to spicy and sour foods.

Taste is a complex sensation that can be caused by many factors, such as poor oral hygiene, dry mouth, or pregnancy. Treating a persistent bitter taste in the mouth can be controlled with some simple home remedies.

Signs and symptoms of bitter taste in the mouth:

Bitter and persistent taste in the mouth is medically known as taste insufficiency. This taste has been described as an unpleasant taste and can last for a long time until the cause is determined. People with taste impairment may experience a persistent unpleasant taste, which is often one of the following:



The taste can hardly be changed for a short time by eating or anything else. A person may still feel the bitter taste even after brushing.

Many of the causes of bitter taste in the mouth are not serious, however the symptoms can cause irritation or interference with a person’s regular diet or enjoyment of daily life.
The following conditions can cause a bitter taste in the mouth:

Dry mouth:

Dry mouth is also known as dry mouth and occurs when the mouth does not secrete enough saliva. Because saliva helps reduce bacteria in the mouth, having less saliva means more live bacteria in the mouth.

People with dry mouth experience a feeling of stickiness and dryness in their mouth, which can be due to factors such as medication, smoking or pre-existing disorders. A person also experiences dry mouth with a stuffy nose. Because breathing through the mouth causes it to dry out. People with persistent dry mouth should consult their doctor for a diagnosis.

Oral issues:

Poor oral hygiene can also cause a bitter taste in the mouth or it may increase cavities, infections and gum disease or gingivitis. Many common oral and dental problems can be eliminated or prevented by brushing or flossing. The use of antibacterial mouthwash while brushing also minimizes harmful bacteria.


Many pregnant women complain of a bitter taste or metal in their mouths in the first 3 months. The body’s hormones fluctuate during pregnancy, and this fluctuation can affect the senses, which can make the taste of some foods unbearable. This taste disappears with the progression of pregnancy or after childbirth.

Burning mouth syndrome:

Burning syndrome is a condition that causes a burning sensation in the mouth. This feeling can be completely different, but many describe it as eating hot peppers. In addition, some people can feel the bitter taste in the mouth.

Symptoms of mouth burning syndrome may be sporadic but can also be chronic and long-lasting. Some people with this syndrome may have trouble eating or drinking, while others may not have these symptoms.


Menopausal women may experience a bitter taste in their mouth, which is due to low levels of estrogen in the body, and may be due to dry mouth.


A yeast infection in the mouth often causes white spots on the tongue, mouth and throat. It may also cause a bitter or unpleasant taste in the mouth, and may persist until the infection is cured.

Acid reflux:

Gastric acid reflux disease can be an unintended source of bitterness in the mouth.

If you read in this section of Moist Health, this disease tends to irritate the fallopian tubes and cause burning in the chest or abdomen. It can also cause a rotten or bitter taste in the mouth and as long as there are other symptoms. Have, may continue.

Stress and anxiety:

High levels of stress and anxiety can trigger the body’s stress response, which often changes a person’s sense of taste. Anxiety can also cause dry mouth, which is often accompanied by a bitter taste.

Nerve damage:

Nerves, like the rest of our senses, attach taste buds directly to the nerves in the brain. Nerve damage can change the way a person deals with tastes. Nerve damage can be from a head injury or other condition, which as follows:


Multiple sclerosis

Brain tumors

Oral medications and supplements

In some people, certain medications, supplements, and medical treatments may cause a bitter taste in the mouth. You should consult your doctor to find out about the medications you are taking.

Impacted teeth may be present in different places in the patient’s oral environment. There are two types of impacted teeth, impacted canines, and impacted wisdom teeth. Implanted wisdom teeth are more common in many people and require surgery if needed. In this article, we are going to introduce you to the issues surrounding impacted canines.

Concealed canines are dental abnormalities that affect the appearance and shape of the tooth bite and arch. This is also due to the fact that the canines are the most primitive teeth that are placed on top of each other when the jaws are paired. Therefore, they are impressive in appearance.

Fangs are usually found in people in the upper jaw, otherwise these teeth can be seen in the arch of the tooth and above the root of the tooth.

Incubation of canines (especially in the maxilla) is a common clinical event. In addition to the delicate appearance caused by the absence of canines in the mouth, there is always a risk of lesions such as cysts or tumors for impacted teeth. This anomaly is more common in women than men and only 2% of people will suffer from this anomaly.

One-third of canine occlusions are found in the labial region and two-thirds in the palatal region.

Tooth occlusion in the maxilla is much more common than occlusion in the mandible and can be said to be twice as common in the maxilla. It should be noted that impacted teeth are available in two forms, labial and palatal, which are briefly defined below:

If the canine teeth are in the upper jaw and in the outer part and towards the jaw, it is called labial.

This is when the canines in the upper jaw, located in the palate, are known as the palatal.

Causes of canine occlusion

The occlusion of the maxillary canine can be towards the cheek (labial) or towards the tongue (palatal). In labial cases, the most common known etiology is the lack of dental arch space, while in palatal cases, deviation of the evolutionary path of the canine bud is the most likely cause of the anomaly.

Orthodontists recommend that a general radiograph be taken at the age of 7 to check for tooth growth and future abnormalities.

In most cases, the main cause of latent tooth growth is the lack of sufficient space in the jaw. To open the jaw space, you can see an orthodontist to use an expander for treatment.

If not diagnosed early, surgery may sometimes be needed to remove the obstructed teeth to make room for the canine.

To diagnose tooth occlusion, your specialist will refer you for an x-ray and x-ray. If the following conditions are found on the radiograph, treatment should be sought:

– Absence of bony protrusion of the canine tooth
– Existence of a bulge in the palate and maxilla
– Abnormal growth and displacement
– No permanent canine growth and deciduous tooth retention until 13 years old
– Treatment of impacted canines

If treated and diagnosed early, no further surgery or treatment is needed.

Wisdom teeth are the last teeth in each jaw arch, which emerge between the ages of 18 and 25 (in some people it may grow sooner), and dentists call it the “Third Asia.”
Usually, each person has 2 wisdom teeth in the upper jaw, 2 wisdom teeth in the lower jaw for a total of 4 wisdom teeth. Occasionally, for inherited reasons, childhood diseases (anemia, rickets), misalignment of jaw bone growth with the size of the teeth, and these teeth remain inside the jaw. Also, part of their crown may appear incompletely in the mouth, in which case it is called a half-hidden wisdom tooth. An impacted tooth is a tooth that has passed since its eruption and for various reasons is not able to be in the proper row with other teeth. Such wisdom teeth may be stuck in soft or hard tissue. Problems that impacted wisdom teeth can cause include inflammation of the soft tissue lining the wisdom teeth, which often occurs in connection with semi-erupted teeth, decay of caries or decay in the area adjacent to wisdom teeth, and the risk of damage to adjacent teeth. The absence of wisdom teeth is one or more examples of hypodontia.

Wisdom tooth problems

Most people in the community have problems with wisdom teeth that can be mentioned as follows:

The compressive effect of space constraints on the maxillary arch or the growth of wisdom teeth in the wrong direction can cause problems such as:

  • Root resorption of the second Asian tooth (in case of incorrect tooth growth pattern (horizontally))
  • The formation of cysts and tumors of dental origin around the wisdom teeth, which may be benign or malignant, depending on the type of lesion.
  • Weakening of the jawbone by an impacted tooth and mechanical instability of the jawbone against impact
  • Disorder and disruption of the rest of the jaw teeth
    You can feel the pain of wisdom teeth in the back of your mouth. If you look in the mirror, you may notice that your wisdom teeth have protruded slightly from the gums. This area may be red and hot.

However, some people do not have specific symptoms of wisdom tooth pain. Mouth pain can also have a number of other causes. They can include tooth decay, fractures or abscesses, filling fractures or injuries, and gum infections.

No matter what the cause, you should see a dentist. Your wisdom teeth may be crooked and may not come out of your mouth properly, or they may cause an infection around your teeth.

Whatever the cause, painful wisdom teeth can really affect the health of your mouth and should be treated immediately. Wisdom toothache sometimes comes from nowhere and starts suddenly without warning. On the other hand, wisdom tooth pain can also appear slowly and gradually.

The first step is to set up an appointment to see your dentist if you think you have a toothache. He or she will be able to assess the area and determine if your pain is really from a wisdom tooth.

Saliva is a clear substance that is secreted by the six main glands in the mouth. It is the saliva that keeps the mouth moist when speaking. This transparent substance also helps digestion and is good for the digestive system. It is interesting to know that saliva is also useful for maintaining the health of the gums and teeth. Join us to learn more about the benefits of saliva.

  1. Eliminate oral contaminants: Bacteria, viruses, and yeasts accumulate in the mouth and attach to the gums, tongue, and teeth. These infections cause many problems for oral health. Saliva clears all of this from the inside of the mouth and sends it out of the body through the digestive tract.
  2. Protects the mouth, teeth, and gastrointestinal tract: Saliva neutralizes the acids in the foods and beverages we eat.
  3. Prevention of tooth decay: Toothache is a problem that even thinking about it can be awful. One of the benefits of saliva is that it protects the teeth against the acids in the mouth.
  4. Formation of healthy plaques in the mouth: The proteins in saliva lead to the production of a useful plaque in the mouth. Saliva first cleans the germs and lesions on the teeth and then covers them with a kind of plaque.
  5. Disinfection and healing of mouth ulcers: Lip biting or sores in the mouth are common. Another benefit of saliva is that it helps to heal these sores.
  6. Helps to digest food more easily: Amylase in saliva breaks down starch sugars into smaller portions to make them easier to digest in the stomach.
  7. Benefits of saliva for diagnosing the disease: Saliva in the mouth is essential. Dry mouth can lead to an imbalance in this area and affect a person’s health. If your mouth is dry and you do not have enough saliva, you must investigate the cause. Dry mouth can be caused by diseases such as Parkinson’s, diabetes, or immune disorders.
  8. Identify the person: One of the benefits of saliva is the ability to identify a person. DNA in oral tissue is also found in salivary tissue.

    Saliva can increase for a variety of reasons. If you have an infectious disease, too much saliva will be secreted. Stress and anxiety, the use of new dentures, and pregnancy can also lead to increased salivation.

    If you are taking certain medications, saliva secretion may increase. Drugs such as clonazepam affect the salivary glands and increase salivation. Bell’s palsy or nerve and facial paralysis, mercury, or arsenic poisoning, diseases such as syphilis, tuberculosis, and oral diseases are other causes of increased saliva. This method is used to identify the person in question.

    There are several reasons for a decrease in saliva. One of the reasons for the decrease in saliva is the use of various drugs. If you have gastrointestinal problems or high blood pressure, taking medication can cause dry mouth.

    Consumption of caffeinated beverages, smoking, and alcohol consumption is also effective in dry mouth. However, aging, respiratory problems, and dehydration can also cause dry mouth.

Some parents are unaware of the fact that they need to be keeping their baby’s teeth healthy because they think that even if their baby’s teeth break down and they are pulled out, permanent teeth will replace them. But they do not know that tooth decay and extraction causes the non-eruption of permanent teeth.

Parents should be fully aware of their baby from an early age and should monitor every part of their body to take action if there is a problem, such as cavities as cavities cause tooth decay. Cavities in baby teeth are one of the most important dental problems in childhood and the most common cause of them at a young age is night feeding.

Cavities in baby teeth are most often noticed by parents between the ages of one and two when the pain usually begins. On average, 6 decayed baby teeth can be seen in a 4-year-old child, but sometimes it is observed that all the teeth of a child have cavities, to the point where it is rare to see a child who does not have decayed teeth.

These cavities eventually lead to denervation or tooth extraction, and because young children are not able to work with their dentist enough. General anesthesia is often required for dental treatment.

Deciduous tooth decay is more common in the first two years of life because mothers put their baby to sleep with milk and several servings of milk during the night. The cause is from lactose in the milk, and when it’s not removed from the teeth, it can cause them to break down.

However, if mothers give their baby some water after feeding or clean their teeth with an ear cleaner or wet cloth, the incidence of such caries is minimized.
At an older age, when the baby eats food, another mistake that mothers make is to give their children sugary meals in multiple servings. However, if they reduce the number of sugary foods to one to two meals a day and then give their child water to brush their teeth, it will help prevent tooth decay.

Normally the healthy gums are pink in color. The result of the poor oral hygiene is having red gums, however, a dentist should be seen immediately if a patient is showing signs of white gums.

Some conditions that can lead to white gums are:

⦁ Leukoplakia : white patches on the mucous membrane
⦁ Leukemia
⦁ Lack of vitamin B12
⦁ Aphthous stomatitis
⦁ Gum inflation
⦁ Lichen planus
⦁ Oral candidiasis
⦁ Dental extraction
⦁ Oral cancer

Patients can prevent themselves from developing white gums by doing the following:

⦁ Brushing the teeth two times a day
⦁ Washing mouth and tongue
⦁ Good nutrition
⦁ Using less sweet and candies
⦁ See the doctor two times a year for check up

White gums should be treated seriously as the reason for them may be quite serious. Always seek medical attention as soon as possible.