Tooth and Gum Infections

Tooth and gum infections are also called dental abscesses or gingival abscesses. The infection appears as a swollen pus-filled fluid at the root of the tooth or the surface of the gums. Tooth infection can be due to tooth decay. Dental abscess is the accumulation of pus caused by an infection in the teeth and gums. Dental abscesses are very painful and make you feel sick. If abscesses and infections of the teeth or gums are not treated, the condition worsens and the bones around the infected area are destroyed.

Feeling of prolonged, severe pain and shooting on one side of the face that may extend to the eyes, temples or around the neck. You may not even be able to identify which tooth or which part of your mouth is the source of this severe pain.

Severe pain in one side of the mouth or in one or more teeth that makes it difficult for you to eat and can be so severe at night that you wake up from the pain.

Severe pain in one tooth so that you cannot press the other teeth on it. You may also feel that your tooth is slightly raised or slightly loose.

Severe swelling inside or outside the mouth at the gums around one or more teeth or on the face. The swelling may or may not be accompanied by pain or fever.

Swelling or a very small bump on the gums above or below the teeth that may be painful or painless. You may also feel a special, unnatural taste in your mouth.

Tooth abscess occurs when bacteria invade the tooth pulp. The tooth marrow is the innermost layer of the tooth, consisting of a soft tissue containing blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue. Bacteria enter the tooth through caries or fractures and cracks on the tooth and reach the root of the tooth. Bacterial infection causes swelling and inflammation in the mouth and teeth. The pus from the infection is pushed through a narrow space in which inflammation forms into a sac (abscess) at the tip of the tooth root, and as the pus accumulates, an abscess forms.

Risk factors

The following factors can increase the risk of dental abscess:

Lack of dental hygiene. Poor gum and tooth hygiene – for example, not brushing or flossing at least twice a day – can increase your risk of tooth decay, gum disease, dental abscess and other oral diseases.

A diet high in sugar. Excessive consumption of sugary foods such as sugary drinks and sweets can cause tooth decay and subsequent tooth abscess.

Infection with related diseases. Having diseases that weaken your immune system, such as diabetes or autoimmune diseases, can also increase the risk of tooth infection and tooth abscess.

The most common symptoms of dental abscess are severe and persistent toothache, which can lead to severe pain when biting and contacting teeth, and shooting in the mouth and teeth. Other symptoms include:


Feeling of pain when chewing food

Sensitivity of teeth to heat and cold (often sensitive to heat, and when cold, the pain is slightly relieved)

Feeling of a bitter taste in the mouth

Bad breath

Swollen glands in the neck

General discomfort and feeling sick

Redness and swelling of the gums

Swelling in the upper or lower jaw

Causes open sores and discharge on the side of the gums

Loose teeth

If the root of the tooth is destroyed by an infection, the toothache may stop. But this does not mean that the infection has healed, but that the infection is still active and spreading to the surrounding tissues and destroying them. Therefore, if you notice any of the above symptoms, even if your toothache subsides, be sure to see your dentist.


Dental abscess will not go away on its own without treatment. If an abscess or pus-filled sac ruptures, the pain may be greatly reduced, but it still needs to be treated. If the dental abscess does not drain, the infection may spread to the jaws and other parts of the head and neck. It may even cause sepsis or a blood infection, which is a widespread and serious threat. If your immune system is weak and you do not treat dental abscess, the risk of spreading the infection to other parts of your body is much higher than someone who has a healthy and strong immune system.


If the abscess is due to tooth decay or broken or cracked teeth:

The tooth and surrounding tissues are anesthetized and a hole is made from the top of the tooth to the inside.

Pus and dead tissue come out of the center of the tooth.

The inside of the tooth and its root canals are thoroughly cleaned and filled with a permanent substance.

A veneer is placed over the filled tooth to protect it.

If a dental abscess is due to an infection in the area between the teeth and the gums:

The abscess is removed and the site is thoroughly cleansed.

The root surface of the tooth becomes clean and soft.

In most cases, surgery or gingival reshaping is performed to prevent recurrence of the infection.

Teeth should be extracted if:

Tooth decay or infection is so severe that it cannot be treated with fillings or denervation.

A broken or cracked tooth is such that it cannot be repaired.

Infection or destruction of tissue (bone) between teeth and gums is very severe.

If a tooth is extracted, one of the following is replaced:




To prevent tooth abscess, it is very important to prevent caries. The most important thing to prevent tooth decay is good care and oral hygiene. Things to consider are:

Brush your teeth at least twice a day with flora toothpaste

Use dental floss or interdental cleaners to thoroughly clean the space between the teeth on a daily basis

Change your toothbrush every 3 to 4 months or whenever your bristles wear out.

Have a balanced diet and reduce the consumption of sugary foods and snacks

See your dentist regularly for professional checking and cleaning of your teeth

Use antimicrobial or flora mouthwashes to add a protective layer against tooth decay